Sunday, 26 May 2013


Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmatʃu ˈpiktʃu], Quechua: Machu Picchu [ˈmɑtʃu ˈpixtʃu], "Old Peak") is a 15th-century Inca site located 2,430 metres (7,970 ft) above sea level. Machu Picchu is located in the Cusco Region of Peru, South America. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cusco and through which the Urubamba River flows. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438–1472). Often referred to as the "City of the Incas" it is perhaps the most familiar icon of Inca civilization.

The Incas built the estate around 1450, but abandoned it as an official site for the Inca rulers a century later at the time of the Spanish Conquest. Although known locally, it was unknown to the outside world before being brought to international attention in 1911 by the American historian Hiram Bingham. Since then, Machu Picchu has become an important tourist attraction. Most of the outlying buildings have been reconstructed in order to give tourists a better idea of what the structures originally looked like. By 1976, thirty percent of Machu Picchu had been restored. The restoration work continues to this day.

Chan Chan

Chan Chan is the largest Pre-Columbian city in South America, and is an archaeological site in the Peruvian region of La Libertad, five km west of Trujillo. Chan Chan covers 20 km and had a dense urban center of 6 km².Chan Chan was constructed by the Chimor (the kingdom of the Chimú), a late intermediate period civilization which grew out of the remnants of the Moche civilization. The adobe city of Chan Chan, the largest in the world, was built around AD 850 and lasted until its conquest by the Inca Empire in AD 1470. It was the imperial capital where 30,000 people lived.

Chan Chan was added as a UNESCO World Heritage Site on November 28 of 1986 The city is severely threatened by storms from El Niño, which cause heavy rains and flooding on the Peruvian coast. It is in a fertile, well-watered section of the coastal plain The city's ruins are threatened by earthquakes and looters. Visitors to Chan Chan can enter the Tschudi Complex, a later citadel. There are other Chimú and Moche ruins in the area around Trujillo. This site was discovered by conquistador Francisco Pizarro.


Pikillaqta (Quechua piki flea, llaqta a place (village, town, community, country, nation), "flea place", hispanicized spellings Piki Llacta, Pikillacta, Piquillacta) is a large Wari archaeological site 20 km east of Cusco in the Quispicanchi Province.


Tipón, located east of Cusco,are Inca ruins which may have been a park for the upper class or an agricultural centrum. Even today water rushes through the channels, and the wide terraces are in perfect condition. Several surrounding ruins have been excavated, and many more are visible below the soil.

The Tipon complex is located near Oropesa in the Community of Choquepeda, 27 km southeast of Cusco and along the Cusco-Puno road. It contains enclosures, terraces and an intact canal. The upper complex is crossed by the Inca Trail with an irrigation canal.

The site was probably used as a laboratory of agricultural products because of the various micro-climates found within the complex. Tipon is considered one of the 16 most important archaeological tours for tourists who visit the area.
Besides being an archaeological complex, the site is home to one of the largest irrigation works in the terraces, with a great distribution of outdoor water channels.


Moray is an archaeological site in Peru approximately 50 km (31 mi) northwest of Cuzco on a high plateau at about 3500 m (11,500 ft) and just west of the village of Maras. The site contains unusual Inca ruins, mostly consisting of several enormous terraced circular depressions, the largest of which is about 30 m (98 ft) deep. 

The purpose of these depressions is uncertain, but their depth and orientation with respect to wind and sun creates a temperature difference of as much as 15 °C (27 °F) between the top and bottom. This large temperature difference was possibly used by the Inca to study the effects of different climatic conditions on crops. In other words, Moray was perhaps an Inca agricultural experiment station. As with many other Inca sites,it also has a sophisticated irrigation system.


Chinchero is a town in southern Peru, capital of the province with the same name in the region Apurímac. It is located on an Andean plain at an elevation of 3762 m and 30 km from Cuzco. There was a time when Chinchero became part of a higher-rank Incan administration centre.